In 2004, the Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC) in the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command undertook efforts to raise awareness about the value of simulation-based medical training to improve health care quality and reduce medical errors. To that end, TATRC provided partial funding to convene a national agenda setting conference. This meeting brought together key leaders in medicine, government, and regulatory officials with medical simulation and patient safety experts. In 2005, TATRC continued its support of this effort and convened a second conference, the title of which was “Simulation in Health Care: A Model for Improving Patient Safety and Ensuring Quality.” This report provides a brief overview of medical simulation and a summary of that meeting.