The science underlying neonatal resuscitation is growing exponentially in quantity and quality. So, too, is the knowledge of effective methodologies that facilitate acquisition and maintenance of the cognitive, technical, and behavioral skills necessary to for successful resuscitation of the newborn. One of these methodologies, simulation-based training, offers many advantages over more traditional methodologies: By providing key visual, auditory, and tactile cues it creates a high level of physical, biological, and psychological fidelity to the real environment and thus is able to elicit realistic responses from trainees. Training scenarios coupled with debriefings (where discussion of what went well and what could be improved upon occur in a nonjudgmental fashion) provide rich learning experiences that rival or exceed those in the real clinical environment. Simulation-based training will likely become the standard for not only routine training but also high-stakes assessment such as licensure and board certification.